Nov 18 2011

Map of Jinan

Baotu Quan 趵突泉 or Jet Spring and Wanzhu Yuan
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Mar 25 2011

Wanzhu Yuan

English
The Ten-Thousand Bamboo Garden 万竹园 is located in Baotuquan park, consists of 186 houses and 13 courtyards of three big sections. It boasts four pavilions, five bridges, one flower garden and three of Jinan’s 72 famous fountains. By pools and streams stand halls, pavilions and kiosks. Courtyards are linked together by sheltered corridors. In the Flower Garden there are many stone carvings, woodcuts and brick carvings. Predicting such tales as Two Dragons Playing with a Pearl; Elephant, Lion, Tiger and Leopards; Pine, Bamboo, Plum Blossom and Orchid. Eight Immortals Crossing The Sea; Magpie Greeting Plum Blossom, as well as Sword, Sabre Spear and Halberd. They were elaborately executed and well preserved. Dotted with pools, rocks, bamboo groves lawn flowers and plants and hemmed by unique shaped rocks the Flower Garden presents many scenic spots.

DSCN8516
The Ten-Thousand Bamboo Garden was built during the Yuan Dynasty (1271 – 1368). It was so named because of its large groves of bamboo and graceful environment. The garden once served as the residence of Wang Ping (王苹; 1661-1720) a famous poet of the Qing Dynasty. In 1912, one year after the Qing court was replaced by the Republic of China, Zhang Huaizhi, commander of the Fifth Military Region of the North Standing Army (later an army inspector and governor of Shandong Province) bought the garden. He hired skillful craftsmen and spent fifteen years from 1912 to 1927 enlarging the garden to the present size.

Structurally compact and artistically valuable, the Ten Thousand Bamboo Garden 万竹园 (Zhang’s Garden 张家花园) presents an ancient compound combining the architectural style of southern China courtyard with the flavor of quadrangular courtyard in northern China.


On August 4, 1985, the Jinan City Hall decided to have the 李苦禅 Li Kuchan Memorial Hall built in the Ten Thousand Bamboo Garden. Since it was officially opened to the public on June , 11, 1986 many domestic and foreign calligraphy and painting exhibitions have been held in the hall.


Feb 21 2011

中国古建筑文化之旅 – 山东 (万竹园)

张润武
Wanzhu Yuan

中国古建筑文化之旅—山东; 张润武, 张潍. 图文版


Feb 21 2011

图说济南老建筑

张润武 Zhang Runwu

万竹园 Wanzhu Yuan (张怀芝府邸)

  • 地点: 泺源大街路北趵突泉公园内
  • 建造年代: 万竹园(元朝) 今存府邸(1921~1927年)
  • 山东省省级文物保护单位, 山东省历史优秀建筑

万竹园坐落在济南泺源大街(原围屏街、西青龙街)路北,今为趵突泉公 园的一部分。这里元朝时面积很大,泉水喷涌,竹林成丛,环境优美,称为 “万竹园”。明朝时改叫“通乐园”。清康熙年间因这里的望水泉为济南七十二名泉的第二十四泉,所以又有“二十四泉草堂”的雅号。历来这里就是 一处泉脉丰盛,鸟语花香,景色幽雅的园林。

清光绪年问袁世凯为扩充自己的势力,命东阿人张怀芝前来山东组建新军。同时授意张怀芝为其树碑立传,修建生祠,为他曾任山东巡抚的所谓德政、恩惠歌功颂德。祠是古人祭祀死者的处所,而生祠则是为活人歌功颂德的建筑。张怀芝心领神会,到济南几经选址,最终选定了趵突泉西、剪子巷南端以西万竹园旧址的一片菜地,购地作为袁世凯的祠堂地基。后来因历史上人事关系变化,张怀芝调离了山东,此事搁置下来,场地空置未用。1912年张怀芝另作主张,开始在已购得的古万竹园上营建私宅,作久居之计。由此可见张怀芝原来购地并不是为了建私宅,其初衷是为了讨好他的上司袁世凯,为其建生祠。1916年张怀芝被任命为山东督军(后兼省长),依仗权势,更得以在这片土地上大兴土木,征集大江南北的能工巧匠为其设计施工,还动用士兵和机械为其挖坑填土。用了五年时间,宅院已初具规模,直到1927年,经十年断断续续的施工,万竹园张氏宅始告竣工,建成了这座既有北方王府气魄,又有着江南园林风韵、规模较大的传统民居群落。

“二十四泉清流遍绕亭台楼榭,万千个竹绿意长存春夏秋冬。”(徐北文)府邸原占地近20亩,包括东、西、南(前)院和西花园共13个院落(今存8个庭院、2个泉池院),186间房屋,建筑面积近4000平方米(20世纪90年代前院拆除后有所减少)。整个府邸房屋鳞次栉比,楼堂层层,曲廊环绕,庭院与泉池交错布置,又有宅、园、三泉、四亭、五桥相衬托,空间丰富多变。

原府邸大门楼面南,南临原围屏街。进门为一南北走向,长度数十米的石板弄道,一直铺到二门前的石桥。桥前左右各有一石狮(以上部分皆已不存)。进二门迎面一座假山矗立正中,山旁广植翠竹,堆石的技艺不高。这座假山将南、东、西三组品字形排列的建筑群有机地联系起来,起着纽带的作用。同时这座假山也应验了“出门见南山”、“抬头见喜”的吉利话,并起着遮挡外界的视线、保障庭院幽静和私密的作用。假山的东南侧是七十二泉之一的“东高泉”。

假山以南与石板弄道平行的是前院,这是一处典型的三进北方四合院,中轴对称布置,布局井然有序。东、西两院竣工后,这里作为外账房和卫兵的住房。前院原临泺源大街的南门,是一座典型的北京垂花门样式,精雕细琢,是济南传统民居的垂花门中最为华贵的一个,可惜20世纪90年代南院连同这个垂花门一并被拆除了。

绕假山左行为西院大门。西院共五进,三进院落和两座泉池院。西院大门坐西面东,进门是宽敞的第一进院落,今称“杏花院”。南北长,东西窄。南房为南客厅,外有游廊与东西厢相通,客厅南北有门,这里是接待一般宾客的场所。院北立一座四角攒尖的方亭,是明代“蒙斋亭”的旧址。亭北是一泉池,为济南七十二泉中的第二十四泉,北池壁上石刻“望水泉”三字。亭子与北庭院有石板桥相连,石桥两侧建有厢房。过石板桥,迎面为一垂花门,门楼上悬“中流砥柱”木匾。进垂花门后的第二进院落,是一所古色古香的四合院(海棠院)。正房是客厅,今称“万竹堂”,是接待贵客的地方。客厅南北开门,接通前后院。再向北又是一处面积更大的泉池院。池壁四周墙上布满精美的砖雕,图案有鸳鸯戏水、鹿衔灵芝、二龙捧寿、白云飞凤等,无不精巧玲珑。由该泉池院西可通往西花园。泉池的东、西厢均为棂格廊房。泉池上一桥飞架南北,桥的正中仿江南苏州园林的桥亭建“六面亭”。桥亭为单檐攒尖顶,六角形平面,内外两层各有6根红柱。内层原有玻璃门窗,夏日炎炎时可在其中纳凉消暑,冬日里大雪纷飞亭子里仍温暖如春,外层设美人靠坐栏,是张怀芝与家人饮酒、赏月、观鱼的好地方。桥头石刻精美,有耕、读、渔、樵等人物故事,也有虎、象等动物形象。亭上梁枋均绘有江南园林中惯用的苏式彩画,枋柱间的云龙雀替透雕精致,均显得精美华丽。木、石、砖雕样样精彩。过桥又是一个垂花门,门枕石雕有两个小麒麟,是第三进院落的人口。这个院落与前院相似,惟正厅宽大,环廊四周,颇有气势。院东开门通主人楼,西开门往西花园。北房正厅是张家祭祀祖先的祠堂。

绕假山右行,正北是东院,共四进,由两进方形四合院、两进横向狭长的院落和一个夹过道组成。南门门楼高起,正脊飞翘,做法与济南常见的门楼相似,但高大气派。门枕石雕浮云麒麟、苍松翠柏。门墩石左右各立一石狮,西为母狮幼狮嬉戏,东是昂首开口的雄狮戏绣球。大门与二门间有清溪穿流,水从西面穿屋而入,向东透墙而出。水来自西花园和西院的泉脉,东与趵突泉水系相连。溪边修竹青翠,景色秀雅。临溪有平桥横卧,石桥柱,石栏板,南桥头刻八仙人物,北桥头雕姒蝮,姿态憨厚可爱,像一方宝印压在桥头上。这一狭长的空间由于巧妙地引进了泉流,波光云影,潺潺水声,生动活泼,起到了小中见大、简中有繁的作用,并不显得空间过于闭塞。东院的二门是一个过厅的门洞,门下的门枕石雕刻精美,文房四宝、家具陈设跃然石上,洋溢着一股书香气。门墩石石刻竹节镶边,顶面上刻包袱下垂,旋子花卉。穿过二门,进入一个方形的四合院,空间顿感开阔,与狭窄的第一进院落形成强烈的对比,是前宅院,为石榴院。坐北面南的正房是中厅,五开间加一设有前廊的西耳房,门窗宽敞,南北开门,连通前后,是张氏平时主要的活动场所。东、西厢和南倒座皆有游廊相连,成为一个完整的四合院。中厅与后宅之间有一狭长的夹过道,绕行东过道或直接由中厅北门均可以抵达。后宅人口是一精雕细刻的垂花门,门内是南北略长的纵深大院——玉兰院。院内空间更为开阔明亮。东、西厢是五开间的平房,临院一侧游廊连通,门窗敞亮。北屋正房是五开间雕琢精细的二层主人楼,东端的尽间是木楼梯间,房正中悬“恒明”木匾,为后来赵朴初先生的手迹。院内百子石榴,枝杈苍劲,花繁叶茂,果实累累。这里是张怀芝及其眷属起居的后宅主人院。西绕向北一夹道,左有门可通西院祠堂,右为一横向狭长的院落。院北一座二层楼房,与主人楼前后并列,其间有一空中廊桥相通,尤其别致新颖。后楼底层为佣人用房,上层是张家小姐的绣楼。墙体下砖上木,上层木地板、木梁,并设有南廊。梁下置青石梁垫,既防潮气对木梁的浸透,又传力至下层的砖墙,受力合理,用料得当。后楼无楼梯可攀登,欲进出后楼,必须经过空中廊桥和前楼东头的楼梯。为方便日常生活,在后楼上西间地面上留有方孔,零碎物品可由孔上下提取。小姐们进出绣楼都要从主人眼皮底 下通过,大门不出、二门不迈的禁锢生活可想而知。院内高墙耸立,防范严密。

西院西邻为西花园,内有七十二名泉之一的白云泉,旧时园内空间开朗,泉溪相连,竹木繁茂,怪石嶙峋。园内原有南花厅、北花厅、西花厅和方亭、游廊等建筑散布其间,景色宜人,是一座仿江南园林风格的宅旁私家园林。后几次遭破坏殆尽。今日虽已修复,但已非原貌。

万竹园张氏府邸的东院中轴对称,布局严谨。若将宅院中轴线上的房门全部打开,可以形成一贯到底的透视线;关门闭户,各院自成一体,有庭院深深深几许的感觉。既有完整的统一氛围,层层院落又各具特色。厅堂层层,墙高院深,颇有北方王府的气魄。而西院则布局灵活,运用亭、泉、桥、池加以点缀,南北轴线时隐时现,空间有开有合,景观环境多有变换,富有江南园林那种步移景异的风韵。

万竹园张氏府邸可以说是集中国传统民居装修之大成。整个建筑群石刻、木雕、砖雕皆有,尤以石刻技艺最为高超。刀法流畅,造型生动,题材广泛,有武有文,丰富多彩。武者,刀枪剑戟,象狮虎豹;文者,琴棋书画,文房四宝。还有王羲之爱鹅、朱元璋喜石、陶渊明隐居等历史故事,也有反映劳动人民耕读渔樵生活的内容。木雕、镂刻更是遍布各个建筑,垂花门上有丹凤朝阳,喜鹊登梅;六面亭上有云龙吐水,八仙过海。侧墙和山墙的墀头是砖雕的主要场所,个个都十分精细,精巧玲珑,细腻逼真。

万竹园除建筑有其独特的特色外,对水系的运营也独具匠心,灵活多变。院内东高泉、望水泉、白云泉三泉为源,使泉水穿厅入院,环绕于建筑之中,时隐时现,流水潺潺,泉池静静,有动有静,多姿多态。张家宅院内的三泉均属济南七十二名泉之列,以人工疏导,组织不同的水景,最后三泉汇流,东流汇入趵突泉水系,是万竹园建筑的一大特色,也是济南传统民居与泉水紧密关联的一个典型实例。

万竹园张氏府邸整个宅院空间层次主次分明,井然有序。建筑多为平房,只有主人楼和小姐的绣楼是二层楼房,高耸于宅院之中。在主人楼上可环顾整个宅院的景色,尤显尊严。每个小四合院的主体北房均布置在中轴线上,为四级台阶,条石基础,前厦木柱石墩,高度与做法均高于厢房和配屋。

院与院之间多用垂花门相通,后门有木屏门封闭,日常人们只能左右通行,只有贵宾上客来临,才屏门大开,迎客亲临。室内空间多采用“扇、花格墙、屏风分间,隔而不断,互相渗透。院内四周皆游廊相连,风雨无阻,使用方便。

张怀芝府邸是一座具有北方特色并独具一格的传统宅第。它充分利用水源丰富的优势,在北方典型住宅四合院的基础上,继承我国园林艺术的传统,又吸取了江南造园的技巧和构思,把全园划分为具有不同主题和特色的若干个小景区。在空间构图上,突出对比效果,组合成有大有小,有开有合,有高有低,有暗有明,丰富多彩的空间图像。景与景之间互相穿插、渗透,运用借景和对景的造园手法,丰富空间,增加景色的层次。对水的运用更是灵活多变,将三名泉巧妙地嵌在建筑群之中,将房屋、花木、泉水融为一体,使院院相通,泉泉相连,从而使万竹园成为既有着居住性能又有着艺术魅力的宅第,达到身居闹市仍可得到山林之乐的目的。万竹园张氏府邸无论从规模上,还是从建筑技艺、造园理水技巧上,都是济南传统民居的精华所在,是研究中国南北方之间过渡地区民居的一个很好的实物资料。现辟为我国著名国画家李苦禅先生的纪念馆并陈列李老的遗作供人们观摩瞻仰。已并入济南三大名胜之一趵突泉公园内,是公园文化底蕴最深的景区之一。


Feb 2 2011

The stone age

张园, the Zhang’s Garden (or WanZhu Yuan 万竹园)

The Garden has huge collection of stone sculptures. I wasn’t particularly keen on taking pictures of them but as I’m cleaning up the album now, I’ve found few, so here it is. More pix on FB.

The Zhang’s Garden has 三绝 three unique features: 石雕,砖雕 木雕 absolutely vivid carving of stone, wood and brick.

by a pavilion and a spring

by the door

by the spring where Dad learned to swim


Nov 16 2010

Dabo’s employer

Dabo 大伯 took me on a tour of his former employer:


Nov 2 2010

Shandong 山东

The Yellow River passes though it.

  • JiNan
  • Qingdao

Sep 27 2010

Shandong Hotel

This 5-star hotel is bit out of the city center. The surrounding area is spacious. Near by there is a California Club – not sure what it offers.

In the room, there is a small plastic sign on the bed saying don’t smoke .. I didn’t read it closely. Later when I talked about with friends in the lobby, they corrected me: it said No Smoking on Bed. Guess I never read. People smoke everywhere, even in the lobby.

Jogging paths ..

A piano ..


Sep 16 2010

万竹园

百科名片

万竹园坐落于趵突泉西,前、东、西三院成品字形排列,花园居于西部,占地面积1.2万平方米,是吸取北京王府、南方庭院、济南四合院建筑特点糅合而成的古建筑群。始建于元代,因园中多竹而得名。元代,因园内筑有 “胜概楼”,赵孟頫曾有诗描写其壮观,称“济南胜概天下少”。

概况

万竹园坐落于山东省济南市趵突泉西,前、东、西三院成品字形排列,花园居于西部,占地面积1.2万平方米,是吸取北京王府、南方庭院、济南四合院建筑特点糅合而成的古建筑群。始建于元代,因园中多竹而得名。元代,因园内筑有 “胜概楼”,赵孟頫曾有诗描写其壮观,称“济南胜概天下少”。明隆庆副四年(1570),礼部尚书殷士儋归隐于此修建“川上精舍”,并易名“通乐园”,清康熙年间,济南诗人王苹在园内筑书室,名二十四泉草堂。现该园建筑为民国初年军阀张怀芝所修,故又名张家花园。1980年,市政府将其划归市园林局管理,对其进行了全面整修。1984年正式对外开放。1985年恢复和改建了西花园,并正式启用原名——万竹园,成为趵突泉公园的园中园。

简介

该园有3套院落,13个庭院,186间房屋,还有5桥4亭1花园及望水泉、东高泉、白云泉等名泉。园内建筑玲拢雅致,古朴清幽,颇具“清、幽、静、雅”的隐士之。曲廊环绕,院院层进,空间一环扣一环,庭园一层深一层,有“庭院深深深几许”景致。溪流、池泉与院落建筑动静相映,形成院院相通,流水潆洄之景观。楼、台、亭、阁,参差错落,结构紧凑,布局讲究。石栏、门墩、门楣、墙面等处,分别有石雕、木雕、砖雕,雕刻细腻逼真,为万竹园“三绝”。园内还植有木瓜石榴玉兰修竹翠柏芭蕉等多种花木。1986年被定为省级文物保护单位。1993年,被收入《中国传统民居建筑集》。1986年,设此园为当代著名大写意花鸟画家李苦禅纪念馆,常年展出李苦禅画作。纪念馆共有14个展室,总建筑面积3752平方米。现展出李苦禅书画作品400余件,其中《松鹰图》、《红梅花怒放》等,为画家晚年佳作,另有楹联“至圣无域泽天下,盛德有范垂人间”,系画家绝笔之作。此外,纪念馆中还展有李苦禅先生生前收藏的部分古字画及其生平照片、书信稿等。同时,纪念馆不定期举办各种书画联展,是中国书画名家纪念馆联馆会员之一。2002年,著名军旅雕塑家仇志海在万竹园院设立仇志海黑陶艺术陈列馆。

历史

始建于元代,清末民初山东督军张怀芝邀集南北之能工巧匠,吸取北京王府。南方庭院、济南四合院的建筑特点,历经10年之久建成。万竹园主要建筑物都规则的排列在轴线上。若门户洞开,自南而北行成一条优美的透视线。院中空间环环相扣,建筑庭院层层递进。室内以隔扇、花隔墙、屏风划分,院内回廊逶迤,起到了联系与交通的作用。院落之间多采用垂花门或异型门,门洞都能形成优美的框景,具有虚实对比的空间变化。关闭门户,各院自成一体。东院玉兰院最后一进有前后楼,为恒明楼。前楼是主人起居处,后楼是小姐闺房,也叫秀楼,仅有一座天桥与前楼相通。西院除各式客厅外,另有家祠、运动场、藏书楼等,院中建有六角水榭,为古时豪宅中独有,用于主人和宾客赏戏和听曲。园内简洁明快的明代木椅,雕龙画凤的清代桌、椅、床、案、凳,珍贵的清代九龙王爷椅、透雕书案、雕龙大厨、镶嵌玉石的雕龙大床,明清时期的细瓷花球瓶、八仙瓷缸、雕龙照壁以及清花瓷盆等,分别安置在海棠院、木瓜院和杏院等处。“三绝”艺术石雕、砖雕、木雕,雕刻的飞禽走兽、花木竹林、曲径通往后院。“知亭”作为廊的起点,南端以临泉而筑的白云轩作为廊的终点。花园东侧为自然式溪流,溪西岸林木葱郁,风景幽邃。溪水自南而北潺潺流入,疏密相间的簇簇翠,自然起伏的草坪,,宛若置身于碧草如茵的大自然中。 万竹院文化底蕴厚重,与济南名士名泉文化结下了不解之缘。明代隆庆四年(1570年),礼部尚书殷士儋归隐于此,易名“通乐园”。此后,清康熙年间曾任成山卫教授、诗坛怪杰王苹购得此园,易名“二十四泉草堂”。清代短篇小说之王蒲松龄以殷士儋小时候在万竹园的故事创作了《聊斋》“狐嫁女”。清末民初年间,袁世凯授意张怀芝为其修建生祠,后因袁忙于做皇帝,张怀芝遂建为私人住宅。1986年,书画大师李苦禅纪念馆建于园内。2002年,著名军旅雕塑家仇志海在杏院设立仇志海黑陶艺术陈列馆。

环境

该园占地面积1.4公顷,在建筑风格上,吸取了北京王府、南方庭园、济南四合院的特点。在建筑布局上,采用对比、衬托、借景等手法,利用墙、廊、溪、桥,对空间进行分割,构成了层层迭迭的院落。计有13个庭院,186间房舍,分东、西、南三套。东套有四大院三小院,西套有四大院,两套连在一起;南套为两小院。各院曲廊环绕,院院相连,楼堂亭榭,参差错落。 迎门假山,玲珑剔透,蔓条披拂,松柏垂荫。院内翠竹碧绿,石榴火红,玉兰雪白,生机盎然,并有“望水”、“东高”等名泉。泉涌成池成溪,绕屋穿廊,潺潺。溪上架桥,池中设亭,人坐亭内可观荷赏鱼。   房舍梁柱、额枋、石栏、石礅、门楣、墙面等处,石雕、砖雕、木雕精美逼真。雕刻内容丰富多彩,有珍禽异兽、神话传说、名人典故、文房四宝、刀枪剑戟、松竹梅兰等。   

万竹园

院西为花园。花园西南隅有白云泉。泉涌成溪,溪上架桥,桥上设亭。溪岸巧石秀立,步移景迁。泉北有轩,名曰“白云”,面阔三间,坐北朝南,玻璃门窗,宽敞明亮,可于内品茶赏景。轩西连曲廊,廊端建小亭,亭内有池,水清见底。园内修竹千杆,花木扶疏,翠草如茵。花园虽小,但视野开阔,小中见大,给人以疏朗清新之感。

   雅致宅院 

万竹园有着园林之雅的宅院,游廊蜿蜒中连缀起一进进一出出的楼台亭榭,石榴院、杏花院、海棠院、木瓜院,一院有一院的雅致,一院有一院的风情,赏苍松翠柏,品藤萝杏花,看葡萄石榴,而清泉流经其间,叠山理水更多了灵气与活泼。有人说万竹园太小,但用“壶纳天地”的思维衡量,万竹园其实不小,正像北京大学校园里的勺园,或是无锡蠡园那样,不必华楼丽阁,不必广置土地,引一脉清泉,修几条幽径,起几处亭台,便俨然构成一个自在的世界。勺园本是“海淀一勺”,一汪水称为淀,勺园处于海淀之中,其小仿佛海中一粟。蠡园的比喻更形象,我们今天说管窥蠡测,蠡就是瓢,蠡园也喻意着一瓢水洞明大海的境界。相对于广阔的世界以及人们对渺远境界的兴趣而言,园林再大也是局促渺小的,即使如煌煌气象的皇家园林颐和园、圆明园,也是难以收备万景。好在中国人自古就有见微知著的参悟智慧,在他们眼里,一勺水亦有曲处,一片石也有深意,一叶落知劲秋,一月圆知宇宙,一朵微花低吟便听得出天籁的回响,一枝竹叶婆娑就参透了大千世界的信息,不是说一花一世界、一草一天国吗?   

   古色古香 

古人说过:“恼人春色入院庭”,庭院之中非但有春色,“照水花柳正依依”;还有夏意,“柳塘风起碧荷香”;而当闲庭霜凝,就能品到“林疏放得画图开”;每到寒雪飘零,“一泓池水映雪晴”便是绝妙景致。我特别喜欢小院中木的点缀,水边的垂柳,石间的青,墙脚的绿筠,窗下的小梅,都别具风味。郑板桥题画时写道:“十笏茅斋,一方天井,修竹数竿,石笋数尺,其地无多,其费亦无多也。而风中雨中有声,日中月中有影,诗中中有情,闲中闷中有伴。”正是表达这种切身感受。畅游名山大川何其壮哉,而一室小景也有情有味,春天看柳,夏日观莲,秋天赏桂,冬日写梅,一一得其时宜,况且思接千载,心游万仞,心灵的活动又能在有限中表达着无限。   于是,漫步于万竹园的芳草幽径,没有远山连绵,没有云水悠悠,脑际中却常能汇大化洪荒,起云烟万象,无论是林木之葱茏、花草之铺地,还是云墙漏窗、奇石通透,处处是心灵的世界。如果你有闲心在此“小园香径独徘徊”,一定能在这微小的世界里放飞一下自己悠悠广远的思绪。 院西为花园。花园西南隅有白云泉。泉涌成溪,溪上架桥,桥上设亭。溪岸巧石秀立,步移景迁。泉北有轩,名曰“白云”,面阔三间,坐北朝南,玻璃门窗,宽敞明亮,可于内品茶赏景。轩西连曲廊,廊端建小亭,亭内有池,水清见底。园内修竹千杆,花木扶疏,翠草如茵。花园虽小,但视野开阔,小中见大,给人以疏朗清新之感。

万竹园有着园林之雅的宅院,游廊蜿蜒中连缀起一进进一出出的楼台亭榭,石榴院、杏花院、海棠院、木瓜院,一院有一院的雅致,一院有一院的风情,赏苍松翠柏,品藤萝杏花,看葡萄石榴,而清泉流经其间,叠山理水更多了灵气与活泼。有人说万竹园太小,但用“壶纳天地”的思维衡量,万竹园其实不小,正像北京大学校园里的勺园,或是无锡蠡园那样,不必华楼丽阁,不必广置土地,引一脉清泉,修几条幽径,起几处亭台,便俨然构成一个自在的世界。勺园本是“海淀一勺”,一汪水称为淀,勺园处于海淀之中,其小仿佛海中一粟。蠡园的比喻更形象,我们今天说管窥蠡测,蠡就是瓢,蠡园也喻意着一瓢水洞明大海的境界。相对于广阔的世界以及人们对渺远境界的兴趣而言,园林再大也是局促渺小的,即使如煌煌气象的皇家园林颐和园、圆明园,也是难以收备万景。好在中国人自古就有见微知著的参悟智慧,在他们眼里,一勺水亦有曲处,一片石也有深意,一叶落知劲秋,一月圆知宇宙,一朵微花低吟便听得出天籁的回响,一枝竹叶婆娑就参透了大千世界的信息,不是说一花一世界、一草一天国吗?

古人说过:“恼人春色入院庭”,庭院之中非但有春色,“照水花柳正依依”;还有夏意,“柳塘风起碧荷香”;而当闲庭霜凝,就能品到“林疏放得画图开”;每到寒雪飘零,“一泓池水映雪晴”便是绝妙景致。我特别喜欢小院中木的点缀,水边的垂柳,石间的青,墙脚的绿筠,窗下的小梅,都别具风味。郑板桥题画时写道:“十笏茅斋,一方天井,修竹数竿,石笋数尺,其地无多,其费亦无多也。而风中雨中有声,日中月中有影,诗中中有情,闲中闷中有伴。”正是表达这种切身感受。畅游名山大川何其壮哉,而一室小景也有情有味,春天看柳,夏日观莲,秋天赏桂,冬日写梅,一一得其时宜,况且思接千载,心游万仞,心灵的活动又能在有限中表达着无限。

  于是,漫步于万竹园的芳草幽径,没有远山连绵,没有云水悠悠,脑际中却常能汇大化洪荒,起云烟万象,无论是林木之葱茏、花草之铺地,还是云墙漏窗、奇石通透,处处是心灵的世界。如果你有闲心在此“小园香径独徘徊”,一定能在这微小的世界里放飞一下自己悠悠广远的思绪。

实用信息

交通:市内可乘14、41、51、52、54、66、72、82、85、101、102、103、104公交车均可到达。


Sep 16 2010

Baotu Spring

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

The Baotu Spring (Chinese: ; pinyin: Bào Quán, sometimes translated as “Jet Spring” or “Spurting Spring”) is a culturally significant artesian karst spring located in the city of Jinan, Shandong Province, China. It is mentioned in the Spring and Autumn Annals, one of the Five Classics of Chinese literature and was declared the “Number One Spring under the Heaven” (Chinese: ; pinyin: Tiān Xià Quán) by the Qing Dynasty Emperor Qian Long.

The Baotu Spring is the most renown among the more than 70 named artesian springs in the downtown area of the city of Jinan. The water of all these springs originates from an Ordovician karst aquifer under the city. As the terrain around Jinan slopes from the south down to the north, the recharge area for the aquifer is located in the mountainous area to the south of the city. The recharge area of the springs covers 1,500 square kilometers, out of which 550 km2 provide direct recharge and 950 km2 indirect recharge.[1]

Altogether, the springs fed by the aquifer have a discharge of about 300,000-350,000 cubic meters per day[2]. Since the 1970s, the springs have stopped flowing several times because too much water has been taken out from the aquifer for human consumption (more than 270,000 m3 per day in the 1970s[2]).

The Baotu Spring is part of a cluster of about 20 named springs. Water age estimates suggest that its water originates from shallow circulation[3].

The spring pool of the Baotu spring is fed by an underwater limestone water through three outlets, the volume of the water coming out of the spring can reach peak values up to 1.6 cubic meters per second[4]. The water jets from the spring are said to have reached highs up to 26 meters[5]. The water temperature remains constant of 18 degree Celsius through the entire year[5].

Other springs in the Baotu Group

Among the other springs in the Baotu group that are also on the list of the “seventy-two famous springs” (Chinese: ; pinyin: shíèr Míng Quán) in Jinan are:

History

The existence of the Baotu Spring has been dated back more than 3,500 years to the times of the Shang Dynasty[5]. The spring is mentioned in the Spring and Autumn Annals, the official chronicle of the ancient State of Lu and one of the Five Classics of Chinese literature[4]. The Baotu Spring is also described in the Suijing Zhu (“Commentary on the Waterways Classic”) compiled by the geographer Li Daoyuan during the time of the Northern Wei Dynasty. He writes that “spring gushes up, water gushing like wheel”[6]. During the time of Li Daoyuan, the Baotu Spring and adjacent springs formed the source of the ancient Luo River[7]. The present-day name of the spring refers to the gushing up of the water. It dates back to the Song Dynasty; previously the spring had been known under different names such as “Baoliu” and “Lanquan”[8].

The area of the Baotu Spring as well as some neighboring springs in the same group are protected by a public park (Chinese: ; pinyin: Bào Quán Gōng Yuán). The park was created in 1956 and covers now about 10.5 hectares.

Architecture

The spring water feeds into a rectangular spring pool that extends 30 meters from east to west and 18 meters from north to south. The spring pool is surrounded by historical structures such as the Leyuan (or Luoyuan) Hall (Song Dynasty, to the north of the spring), the Guanlan Pavilion (Ming Dynasty, west of the spring), and the Laihe Bridge (built during the Wanli era of the Ming Dynasty, east of the spring)[6]. Close by, on the shore of the spring’s runoff stands the Wangheting Teahouse. Other noteworthy structures are the Banbi Corridor and the Waterside Chamber. The largest architectural ensemble is the 10,000 Bamboo Garden (Chinese: ; pinyin: Wànzhú Yuán). It comprises 186 buildings arranged around 13 courtyards as well as four pavilions and five bridges. Originally built during the Yuan Dynasty, it served as the residence of the governor of Shandong during the Ming Dynasty and as the home to a famous poet. In 1912, Zhang Hauizhi, a commander of the local army who later became governor of Shandong Province bought the garden and kept enlarging it from 1912 to 1927. Other gardens and architectural ensembles within the park are the Cang Garden (with the memorial to Wang Xuetao), the Luoyuan Garden, the Hundred Flowers Garden, and the (May 3rd Massacre) Memorial Garden.

Culture

Baotu Spring has been a recurring subject of classic Chinese literature and has been written about by authors such as Zeng Gong (Song Dynasty), Zhao Mengfu (Yuan Dynasty), and Pu Songling (Qing Dynasty)[7]. The spring was visited by the emperors Kang Xi and Qian Long who left inscriptions at the site. Qian Long conferred on it the honorary title “First Spring under the Heaven” (Chinese: ; pinyin: Tiān Xià Quán).

The Baotu Spring public park also houses memorials to the local painters Li Kuchan (1898-1983) and Wang Xuetao (1903-1982) as well as to the poet Li Qingzhao. The latter has a memorial hall set in a traditional courtyard dedicated to her.

The Baotu Spring is the site of an annual lantern festival (starts on the Chinese New Year day and lasts for one month, and a chrysanthemum show (since the 1970s, held from the end of October to the end of November.

A local beer brand (“Baotu Quan” beer produced by Jinan Beer Group Corporation) is named after the spring and said to be brewed with water from the spring.

Location

The Baotu Spring is located right to the southwest of the city center of Jinan, on the outer side of the old city moat and near the west end of Quancheng Road (Chinese: ; pinyin: Quán Chéng ); its street address is Baotu Spring South Road 1 (Chinese:  1; pinyin: Bào Quán Nán  1 háo), Jinan, Shandong.